(20) The definition of to own ‘brother’, aha from inside the BT, features in addition come augmented, although this function is also found in Turoyo. Hertevin features one another ?aha and you can ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), however, Mandaic only has aha (Macuch 1965, 495).
As well, exterior NENA, i have other conditions: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)
(21) One rather mystical item which is attested in every NENA dialects except Sanandaj Christian (and that most likely simply a chance gap from the research) try aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) argues that the term derives on the supply ql ‘to feel crooked’. The languages use the form aqla, but Koy Sanjaq aqla and you may Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.
(22) Several other word discussed of the Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty-two, 134) was baxta ‘woman’, that has supplanted the Syriac atta in every NENA, although not inside Turoyo otherwise Mandaic. This phrase generally seems to result of Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It’s fascinating to see you to definitely an unequal plural survives inside numerous languages: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you may Halabja inse.
(23) An urgent development mentioned of the Noldeke (1868, 59) is actually rxata, add up to Syriac rhat. The alteration regarding h so you can x inside one word try included in the NENA languages the spot where the verb was attested. Examples: Sanandaj Christian raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi r-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).
(24) Various other unexpected invention ‘s the NENA verb ‘fear’, which takes the forms zda?an effective, zdaya, and you may zdala throughout the certain dialects. Macuch and you may Panoussi (1974, 50) bring a potential derivation on the Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Models toward infixed d can be found in all the brand new NENA dialects where the resources is attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-fearing (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)
Not all the of distinguishing attributes of NENA are internet found in either Turoyo otherwise Mandaic
I do believe the a lot more than helps it be clear the NENA languages display many unique traits which can be discovered neither in the last attested forms of Aramaic nor regarding the almost every other life languages. These features assortment along the domains out of phonology, morphology, in addition to lexicon.
Specifically, every languages regarding NENA consent for the conditions 2, 9, 14, fifteen, sixteen, 21, and you will twenty-two. All dialects in which you will find pointers in addition to agree on conditions 20, 23, and you can twenty four.
All but Halabja agree when you look at the conditions 8 and you may 11. Traditional six is located in all dialects but Halabja, Hertevin, and you can Sanandaj Christian.
Despite the interior divisions, the fresh new NENA languages means an amazingly defined classification, split clearly out-of each other Turoyo and you can Mandaic. The career ones dialects outside of the NENA pale may be out of question.
The amount to which provides are mutual all over NENA is very impressive as soon as we check out the enormous differences when considering different languages. This new influence away from almost every other languages into NENA has been each other deep and you can wider, and also the amount of common intelligibility anywhere between languages can be quite small. Many mutual innovations argue strongly having a familiar provider out of the NENA dialects, in both a single dialect or perhaps in a small grouping of closely related dialects. Meanwhile, we could discern a handful of important packages away from isoglosses hence portray the brand new borders off dialect groups.
a) This new dialect off Halabja does not display specific extremely important designs and that can be found using most of the rest of the dialects. It generally does not function a CCiC-le preterite out of intransitive verbs (8), it offers no b(it)- future marker (10), and contains no third people only one copula with 1 (11). This is certainly by far the most standard department between dialects from NENA. It means the remaining dialects function a team whereby innovations spread if you are Halabja stayed unaffected of the them.